Stencil Pattern Concrete
Application Guide - Print
Application Guide (PDF 96kb)
This Guide is intended to provide basic instructions for the application
of Stencil Pattern decorative concrete, a surface-formed method used on freshly
placed concrete to simulate brick, stone or tile paving in pathways, driveways
and light-traffic roadways.
Stencil pattern concrete systems originated from the United States of America
and developed in Australia as an economical alternative to installation and
placement of segmental brick, stone or tile pavers. The pavement on which
stencil pattern concrete systems are used must be designed for the loadings
and soil conditions that support it.
Reference to Standards Australia AS 3727 – 1993 Guide to residential
pavements is recommended for the selection and construction of pavements
associated with residential buildings consisting of single houses or multiple
dwellings in medium density housing developments. It does not apply to the
design and construction of public roads or streets where appropriate engineering
specification is required to certify suitability and serviceability expectations
of the project.
Stencil pattern concrete systems should only be selected on the basis of
providing an acceptable probability of serviceability during the design life
of the pavement. Slip resistance capability required by AS/NZS 4586 – 1999
and resistance to abrasion wear in accordance with test methods stipulated
in AS/NZS 4456.9 – 1997 are critical considerations consistent with
the serviceability expectations of stencil pattern concrete systems. Designer
Concrete Coatings coloration products are NATA tested fit for intended purpose
and published results significantly exceed minima requirements of the Standards.
Fit for intended purpose criteria is also a compliance requirement of Fair
Trading (NSW), the Home Building Act (NSW) and Trade Practices Act (Commonwealth).
3. Description – Stencil Pattern Concrete:
Stencil pattern concrete systems are surface formed on freshly placed concrete.
The colouring agent is cast onto the fresh concrete surface with the stencil
in place and trowelled to achieve a closed-textured skid resistant surface
appropriate for pavement slope in accordance with the objectives of AS/NZS
4586 – 1999. When the stencil is removed, the concrete under the stencil
remains uncoloured resembling mortar joints between the cast-in-place paving
brick or tile units. A clear concrete sealer is applied to the completed
works to aid concrete curing.
4. Basic Application and Finishing Instructions.
4.1 Concrete Consistency.
Concrete shall be of such consistency that it can
be readily placed and compacted in the forms without segregation of materials
and without excess bleed water collecting on the surface. Concrete slump
shall be greater than 85mm and should not exceed 110mm unless a high range
water-reducing admixture is approved. Concrete grade might normally be 20MPa
or 25MPa for residential application. Higher concrete grades used in certain
commercial applications may or will require mix design that slow setting
times to allow stencil pattern concrete systems to be cast-in-place in a
proper and workmanlike manner.
4.2 Initial Concrete Finish.
Fresh concrete shall be compacted and worked
until all coarse aggregate is below the surface and mortar comes to the top.
It shall then be struck off, edged and initially finished with at least a
metal bull float to produce an even closed surface.
4.3 Application of Stencil Pattern Matrix.
Stencil matrix is manufactured
from high strength water-resistant paper and produced in a range of traditional
and contemporary paving patterns that simulate the shape of brick, stone
or tiles. Stencil matrix is packaged in 50m2 and 100m2 rolls for placement
over the paving area. Header stencil is package in 50m and 100m rolls for
placement around the perimeter of the pavement. Rosette stencils in diameter
dimensions of 900mm or 1.6m or 2.2m are ready made to create features within
the paving area.
Important Note: Stencil pattern placement for consistent pattern match and
decorative uniformity within the dimensions of any given pavement requires
competency on the part of the installer. Stencil application by experienced
concrete contractors is recommended for proper and workmanlike installation
and finishing practices to affect decorative appearance and serviceability.
Where experienced concrete contractors are not available, it is critical
that the installer draws a paving plan, gains prepared knowledge of pattern
matching stencil selections and placement detailing to plan so as to complete
the work in a competent manner.
Stencil placement should commence as soon as possible but not so early where
the fresh concrete surface is too wet and soft from initial bleed water rise
but in sufficient time for completion of the works before concrete hard-set
occurs. Concrete surface drying is affected by prevailing weather conditions
at the time of placement and therefore pre-prepared knowledge of concrete
behaviour under different weather conditions is recommended for proper and
workmanlike performance of the works. For example, on days of high ambient
temperature and particularly when combined with high wind and low humidity
the use of surface hard retardants may extend critical time to complete the
works in a proper and workmanlike manner.
Where Header Course is used it must
be placed first and before application of stencil to the body of the paving
area. Header course is a matrix ladder of bricks, blocks or tiles. Recommended
application method requires the outside ‘mortar
joint’ strip of paper matrix to be placed atop of the formwork then
cut off where it abuts the edged of the concrete – then use of a special
purpose stencil roller from Designer Concrete Coatings to ‘adhere’ the
stencil to the fresh concrete surface that precludes embedding the stencil
too deep into the concrete surface. Header Course placement will require
two persons. Unroll stencil from the top over the full run of each individual
pavement side at a time then begin to place the Header mid span first working
outwards to the ends. Mitre each right angle corner for appearance where
practical to do so.
Method used to place Header stencil around curves requires making diagonal
cuts in the vertical ‘mortar joint’ strip of the matrix at the
point where it meets each of the horizontal ‘mortar joint’ strips
within the matrix so that it will arc to the shape of the curve. Practice
in method of placing Header to curves is recommended before commencement
of works and/or seek practical technical advice from Designer Concrete Coatings
Application of stencil matrix to the body of the paving area will require
two persons. Unroll stencil from the top over the full horizontal span of
the pavement (unless otherwise specified or shown on drawings) then begin
to place stencil mid span first working outwards to the ends. Trim excess
stencil to pavement dimensions – then use special purpose stencil roller
from Designer Concrete Coatings to ‘adhere’ the stencil to the
fresh concrete surface. Repeat this procedure each time with care to precisely
overlap and align stencil matrix to corresponding points so as to produce
pattern uniformity throughout the works.
4.4 Application of Colour Hardener.
Use CCH 3000 or CMM 3000 grade colour
hardener from Designer Concrete Coatings. Cast colour hardener twice – two separate casting operations evenly
and uniformly over the entire fresh concrete surface. Wide areas may require
the use of a bridge to ensure consistent coverage. Cast at least two thirds
of the total volume of colour hardener required first; then completely and
thoroughly trowel (work) into the concrete surface. Repeat this operation
with the remaining one third of the total volume of colour hardener. Final
finish must achieve surface texture to promote slip resistance appropriate
for pavement slope in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 4586 – 1999.
Colour Hardener Application Rate: 2kg to 2.5kg x m2 (= 8m2 – 10m2
4.5 Removal of Stencil Pattern Matrix.
When the concrete achieves initial
set to the point where it can support the weight of an adult person without
surface damage and before hard set occurs, lift a small section of stencil
to test that it will ‘pull
out’ without unacceptable chipping or ravelling to the edges of the
paving brick units. When the point of appropriate surface colour depth hardness
is achieved then the stencil can be completely removed. Wear appropriate
footwear so as to prevent surface damage – two pairs of thick socks
is a preferred method of walking on curing concrete surfaces to remove
stencil. Start from the outside of the pavement towards the centre; pulling
stencil over itself until each run is completed. Avoid walking or standing
where stencil has been removed as chips of colour remaining on the surface
can discolour joints between the paving brick units. When stencil is completely
removed, use a mechanical blower to thoroughly expel any chips of colour
remaining on the surface.
4.6 Application of Clear Sealing Compound.
The intended purpose of sealer
application to the completed works is to aid concrete curing that promotes
durability of hardened concrete and, to aid normal maintenance requirements
of pavement owners limited to surface cleanability. Best results are achieved
with a two-coat application.
Use Designer Concrete Coatings ‘Prime & Seal” for the first
coat. Apply within 24 hours after completion of works to aid concrete curing.
Use Designer Concrete Coatings ‘Decorative Concrete Sealer’ for
the second coat. Apply not less than three days after application of the ‘prime & seal’ first
Best method of application: Use a lambs-wool roller for the first coat – then
use a soft polypropylene bristle or natural bristle broom for the second
coat. Apply sealer evenly and uniformly over the surface.
Nominal Application Rate: 4m2/litre.
DO NOT walk on sealed surfaces for 24 hours after application and DO NOT
park motor vehicles on sealed surfaces for 72 hours after application. Read
application instructions printed on sealer drums before use. Technical Notes
for proper and workmanlike application are available from Designer Concrete
It must be acknowledged and pavement owners made aware that the finished
appearance of any clear or coloured acrylic sealing compound made for concrete
surfaces may or will be affected by prevailing weather and concrete texture
and porosity at the time of application and that all such sealers will
deteriorate in time and by use and weathering and that if such sealer is
applied no guarantee is or can be given as to finished appearance, performance
or durability and neither for agents that cause surface stains and not
for traction or any non-slip nature thereof and no claims in respect thereto
is accepted by the installer or sealer supplier.
5. Precautions and Limitations of Stencil Pattern Concrete Systems.
5.1 Protect Adjacent Structures:
Colour hardener products are manufactured
in powdered form and when applied may or will become airborne by prevailing
weather conditions. Protect all adjacent exposed surfaces with plastic film
or equivalent to prevent stain damage.
5.2 Pavement Grade.
The limits nominated by Australian Standard AS 2890.1 – 1993
stipulates the maximum gradient within a residential property to be 1:5 however
there is a qualification to the relevant Clause that notes that this limitation
may not be practical in some particularly hilly residential locations. Under
these circumstances the local regulatory authority has the discretion to
relax the criterion but are advised to promulgate a clear policy as to what
grades they will permit in what locations. If there is no established policy
or regulatory authority approval of necessary relaxation of the 1:5 gradient
limit, the pavement does not comply with the Australian Standard.
Clause 5.4 of AS 3727 – 1993 Guide to residential pavements advises
that surface texture should have slip resistance appropriate for pavement
slope as required by AS/NZS 4586 – 1999. Designer Concrete Coatings
colouration products have capability to achieve a low risk slip coefficient
of 0.68 when tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4586 – 1999.
contractors are advised to seek appropriate technical advice from local
regulatory authorities where pavement grades exceed the 1:5 residential limit
noted in AS 2890.1 – 1993 and written acknowledgement to pavement
owners regarding precautions and limitations of slip resistance relative
to pavement grade and recommended surface texture to reduce associated slip
hazard risk but not prevent slipperiness induced by slope and/or environmental
conditions such as rain.
5.3 Materials Safe Handling Advice.
DCC Manufacturing Pty Ltd provides Materials
Safety Data Advice including recommended personal protection equipment (PPE)
where required for products produced and/or marketed by Designer Concrete
Coatings Pty Ltd in compliance with Work Cover. This information is available
with product purchases for reference to end-users.
5.4 Normal Maintenance requirements.
Pavement owners are required to affect
a reasonable standard of maintenance of the finished pavement to ensure an
acceptable probability of serviceability and durability of the work. Principles
of normal maintenance are advised in Clause 4.3 of AS 3727 – 1993 that
must not preclude routine cleaning of the decorative surface including regular
removal of oil spillages from motor vehicles, general sweeping of leaves
Product Manufacturers Disclosure.
The information contained in this publication is for general guidance only
and in no way replaces the advice or services of professional consultants.
No liability is accepted by the Publisher for its use.
Licensed or otherwise appropriately experienced concrete contractors who
use and/or recommend Designer Concrete Coatings’ product systems are
independent entities and bears responsibility for workmanship and proper
application of Designer Concrete Coatings’ product systems and asserts
that the contractor is fully conversant in the proper application of decorative
surface-formed concrete product systems and has received copies of the manufacturer’s
product systems specifications. DCC Manufacturing Pty Ltd nor any of its
subsidiaries assumes any liability expressed or implied for the workmanship
or improper application of its product systems by concrete contractors or
their agents or employees nor for product abuse or damage caused by undue
influence or by pavement owners.
Provisions of this Disclosure do not in any way reduce or limit DCC Manufacturing
Pty Ltd obligations in relation to proven defective or faulty materials at
the point of sale if ever arises as stipulated in the Company’s written
Limited Product Warranty.
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